Sunday, April 1, 2012

Important LIS term ( E, F, G, H & I)

Important LIS term beginning with E

Electronic book
A digital version of a traditional print book designed to be read on a personal computer or an e-book reader.

Electronic document delivery
The transfer of information traditionally recorded in a physical medium to the user electronically, usually via e-mail or the World Wide Web.

Electronic journal
A digital version of a print journal, or a journal-like electronic publication with no print counterpart, made available via the Web, e-mail, or other means of Internet access.

Electronic magazine
A digital version of a print magazine, or a magazine-like electronic publication with no print counterpart, made available via the Web, e-mail, or other means of Internet access.

Electronic newsletter
A newsletter published online, usually via the Internet, with or without a print counterpart.

Electronic records
Bibliographic or archival records stored on a medium, such as magnetic tape/disk or optical disk, that requires computer equipment for retrieval and processing.

Electronic resource
Material consisting of data and/or computer program(s) encoded for reading and manipulation by a computer, by the use of a peripheral device directly connected to the computer, such as a CD-ROM drive, or remotely via a network.

An abbreviation of electronic mail, an Internet protocol that allows computer users to exchange messages and data files in real time with other users, locally and across networks.

E-mail address
A string of characters used to route messages from one computer to another over a network governed by the Internet protocol for electronic mail (SMTP).

A book or numbered set of books containing authoritative summary information about a variety of topics in the form of short essays, usually arranged alphabetically by headword or classified in some manner.

Ex-library copy
A copy of a book or other item once owned by a library and subsequently acquired by a used book dealer, usually identified by an ownership mark, library binding, and/or spine label.

Extensible Markup Language (XML)
A subset of the SGML markup language in which the tags define the kind of information contained in a data element rather than how it is displayed.

Important LIS term begining with "F"

Facsimile catalog
A catalog that includes in each entry a small reproduction of the picture, slide, map, or other item it represents, usually affixed to or printed on cards larger than standard size or on sheets of heavy paper filed in a loose-leaf or other type of binder.

Faculty status
Official recognition by a college or university that the librarians in its employ are considered members of the faculty, with ranks, titles, rights, and benefits equivalent to those of teaching faculty, including tenure, promotion, and the right to participate in governance.

Fiber optics
The high-speed transmission of data encoded in pulses of laser light via cable constructed of optical fiber made of pure silicon dioxide, a technology that revolutionized the telecommunication industry in the late 20th century, making it possible to interconnect computers large and small in a worldwide network.

Literary works in prose, portraying characters and events created in the imagination of the writer, intended to entertain, enlighten, and vicariously expand the reader's experience of life.

A collection of documents usually related in some way, stored together, and arranged in a systematic order. In computing, a collection of structured data elements stored as a single entity or a collection of records related by source and/or purpose, stored on a magnetic medium.

A thin strip or sheet of flexible, transparent or translucent material coated with a light-sensitive emulsion that, when exposed to light, can be used to develop photographic images.

Film library
A type of special library containing a collection of 8, 16, 35, or 70mm motion pictures, video recordings, DVDs, and other materials related to cinematography and film studies, classified for ease of access and retrieval.

First-line index
An index in which the opening lines of poems are listed in alphabetical order, each entry giving the title of the work and the name of the poet, usually shelved in the reference section of a library.

Floppy disk
A 3.5” external metallic magnetic disk encased in a rigid plastic envelope designed for use in a personal computer as a portable storage medium for data in digital format.
Full-text search
A search of a bibliographic database in which the entire text of each record or document is searched and the entry retrieved if the terms included in the search statement are present.

Important LIS term beginning with "G"
A news sheet in which current events, legal notices, public appointments, etc., are recorded on a regular basis.

General encyclopedia
An encyclopedia that provides basic information on a broad range of subjects but treats no single subject in depth, as distinct from a subject encyclopedia that provides greater depth of coverage within a more limited scope.

Google Scholar
A free service launched by Google in November 2004 that allows users to search the Internet for scholarly literature across many disciplines using the company's proprietary search software.

A handbook that provides useful current information for travelers to a city, state, region, country, or other geographic area or for visitors to a museum, park, historical site, etc.

The blank space formed by the inner margins of facing pages in an open book, from the binding edge to the area bearing printed matter. The width of the gutter margin is an important factor in determining whether a book can be rebound.

Important LIS term beginning with “H”

A single-volume reference book of compact size that provides concise factual information on a specific subject, organized systematically for quick and easy access.

A printed sheet or group of sheets, usually stapled together at one corner, intended for distribution during an oral presentation or instruction session to give the attendees a record of content covered (summary, outline, hard copy of PowerPoint slides, etc.) or to provide supplementary or complementary information (supporting data, examples, suggestions for further reading, contact information, etc.).

A book bound in an inflexible board case or cover, usually covered in cloth, paper, plastic, leather, or some other durable material, as distinct from a book bound in a cover made of flexible material.

Hard disk
A magnetic medium capable of storing a large quantity of data, which resides permanently within a computer, as opposed to a portable disk that can be inserted in a disk drive by the user whenever a data file needs to be opened or saved, then removed once the operation is completed.

Mechanical, electrical, electronic, or other physical equipment and machinery associated with a computer system or necessary for the playback or projection of nonprint media. Basic microcomputer hardware includes a central processing unit (CPU), keyboard, and monitor.

The process of gathering data from Web pages and other Internet sources and sending it back to a central site for indexing. An Internet crawler harvests Web pages for indexing in Internet search engines Google, AltaVista, HotBot, etc.

Hierarchical classification
A classification system in which the classes are subdivided on the principle of logical subordination, from the most general subjects to the most specific. Hierarchical classification can be broad or close.

The arrangement of classes in a classification system, from the most general to the most specific.

A writing system in which pictures or symbols, rather than letters of a phonetic alphabet, are used to represent words, syllables, and sounds

In information retrieval, the number of records retrieved from a database that are relevant to the query.
On the Internet, the number of times a given site is visited during a designated period of time, which can be recorded by an automatic counter supported by the software running the site.

Holdings record
In cataloging, a separate record attached to the bibliographic record for a serial title or multivolume item to track issues, parts, volumes, etc., as they are acquired by the library.

The first or main page of a site on the World Wide Web, displayed whenever a user logs on to a Web browser and opens the site address (URL).

Hospital library
A medical library maintained within the walls of a hospital, containing a collection of print and online resources on medicine and allied health to serve the information and research needs of doctors, nurses, patients, and staff, usually managed by a medical librarian.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
Used to create the hypertext documents accessible via the World Wide Web and intranets, HTML script is a cross-platform presentation markup language that allows the author to incorporate into a Web page text, frames, graphics, audio, video, and links to other documents and applications. Formatting is controlled by "tags" embedded in the text.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The communications protocol used in Web browser software to establish the connection between a client computer and a remote Web server, making it possible for data files in HTML format to be transmitted over the Internet from the server to the client machine on which the browser is installed.

Important LIS term beginning with “I”
A picture, plate, diagram, plan, chart, map, design, or other graphic image printed with or inserted in the text of a book or other publication as an embellishment or to complement or elucidate the text. Also refers to the fine art of creating such visual works.

A space between the margin on a page and the beginning of a line of type, as at the beginning of a paragraph of text.

An alphabetically arranged list of headings consisting of the personal names, places, and subjects treated in a written work, with page numbers to refer the reader to the point in the text at which information pertaining to the heading is found.

The process of compiling one or more indexes for a single publication, such as a monograph or multivolume reference work, or adding entries for new documents to an open-end index covering a particular publication format, works of a specific literary form, or the literature of an academic field, discipline, or group of disciplines.

Indicative abstract
An abstract that describes the type and form of a document, indicating its purpose and/or scope and providing a brief description of the treatment, without summarizing the content or evaluating the work.

Data or facts, conclusions, ideas, and creative works of the human intellect and imagination that have been communicated, formally or informally, in any form.

Information and referral (I&R)
A service available at no charge, usually from a public library or other public service agency, providing contact information about other organizations, agencies, and individuals qualified to offer specific information and services, both free and fee-based, usually within the local community.

Information desk
A desk in a large public or academic library, usually located near the main entrance, staffed by a nonprofessional trained to screen questions, provide basic information about library services and collections, and direct users to the reference desk or some other public service point, when further assistance is needed.

Information ethics
The branch of ethics that focuses on the relationship between the creation, organization, dissemination, and use of information, and the ethical standards and moral codes governing human conduct in society.

Information literacy (IL)
The concept includes the skills required to critically evaluate information content and employ it effectively, as well as an understanding of the technological infrastructure on which information transmission is based, including its social, political, and cultural context and impact.

Information management
The skillful exercise of control over the acquisition, organization, storage, security, retrieval, and dissemination of the information resources essential to the successful operation of a business, agency, organization, or institution, including documentation, records management, and technical infrastructure.

Information need
Information need is an individual or group's desire to locate and obtain information to satisfy a conscious or unconscious need.

Information overload
A condition in which too much information is available on a topic, a common occurrence in online searching, particularly when the query is expressed in terms that are too general.

Information Retrieval (IR)
The process, methods, and procedures used to selectively recall recorded information from a file of data. In other words Information Retrieval (IR) is the science of searching for documents, for information within documents and for metadata about documents, as well as that of searching relational databases and the World Wide Web.

Information Technology (IT)
A very broad term encompassing all aspects of the management and processing of information by computer, including the hardware and software required to access it. In other word, IT is broad area of collecting, processing, storing and retrieving data or information by computer and other related technologies.

Informative abstract
An abstract that summarizes the essential content of a document, usually within the limitations of a single paragraph, reflecting its tone and mode of presentation.

The use of mathematical and statistical methods in research related to libraries, documentation, and information.
Intellectual freedom
The right of any person to read or express views that may be unpopular or offensive to some people, within certain limitations.

Intellectual property
Tangible products of the human mind and intelligence entitled to the legal status of personal property, especially works protected by copyright, inventions that have been patented and registered trademarks.

Inter-library loan (ILL)
Interlibrary loan is a service whereby a user of one library can borrow books, videos, DVDs, sound recordings, microfilms, or receive photocopies of articles in magazines that are owned by another library.

International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD)
A set of standards adopted in 1971 by the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), governing the bibliographic description of items collected by libraries.

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
A unique 10-digit standard number assigned to identify a specific edition of a book or other monographic publication issued by a given publisher, under a system recommended for international use by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1969.

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
A unique eight-digit standard number assigned by the International Serials Data System (ISDS) to identify a specific serial title. The ISSN is usually given in the masthead of each issue or on the copyright page of each volume or part of a series.

The high-speed fiber-optic network of networks that uses TCP/IP protocols to interconnect computer networks around the world, enabling users to communicate via e-mail, transfer data and program files via FTP, find information on the World Wide Web, and access remote computer systems such as online catalogs and electronic databases easily and effortlessly, using an innovative technique called packet switching.

Intra-library loan
The loan of an item by a library to another library within the same library system, or directly to a patron of another library in the same system, on request, usually faster than interlibrary loan if the system has its own delivery service.

An in-house Web site designed to be used only by the staff or employees of an organization, institution, or commercial enterprise. Intranets use the same TCP/IP and hypertext protocols as the Internet, but access by unauthorized users is usually blocked by a firewall. Also used in a more general sense to refer to any in-house LAN or client-server system.


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